MATTI FRIEDMAN, Associated Press Writer
They come from one of the
world's most disputed holy places - the square in the heart of
The story behind the rubble includes an underground crypt, a maverick college student, a white-bearded archeologist, thousands of relics spanning millennia and a feud between Israelis and Palestinians which is heavily shaped by ancient history.
Among finds that have emerged are a coin struck during the Jewish revolt against the Romans, arrowheads shot by Babylonian archers and by Roman siege machinery, Christian charms, a 3,300-year-old fragment of Egyptian alabaster, Bronze Age flint instruments, and - the prize discovery - the imprint of a seal possibly linked to a priestly Jewish family mentioned in the Old Testament's Book of Jeremiah.
And the finds keep coming. On a drizzly November morning, Gabriel Barkay, the veteran biblical archeologist who runs the dig, sat in a tent near the mounds examining some newly discovered coins stamped by various Holy Land powers: the Hasmonean dynasty of Jewish kings more than 2,000 years ago, a Roman procurator around the time of Pontius Pilate, the early Christians of the Byzantine Empire, two Islamic dynasties and the British in the 20th century.
Considering the wealth of findings, it is odd, perhaps, that this is an excavation that was never supposed to happen.
Jews revere the Mount as the site of their two ancient temples. Muslims believe it's where the Prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven during a nighttime journey recounted in the Qur'an. Two mosques stand on the site, as do some of the temple's original retaining walls, including the Jewish shrine called the Western Wall, but there is no visible trace of the temple itself.
The site has been the frequent arena of Israeli-Palestinian fighting, and its volatility has prevented archeologists from ever touching it.
In November 1999, the Waqf, the Muslim organization that administers the site's Islamic holy places, opened an emergency exit to an ancient underground chamber of stone pillars and arches known to Jews as Solomon's Stables and to Muslims as the Marwani mosque.
Ignoring fierce protest
from Israeli archeologists who said priceless artifacts were being destroyed to
erase traces of Jewish history, the Waqf dug a large pit, removed tons of earth
and rubble that had been used as landfill and dumped much of it in the nearby
The Waqf's position was, and remains, that the rubble was of recent vintage and without archeological value.
Zachi Zweig, a 27-year-old
archeology undergraduate at
Zweig returned surreptitiously with friends, gathered samples of the rubble and discovered a high concentration of ancient pottery shards. He was charged by the Israel Antiquities Authority with stealing relics - charges that were later dropped - and finally convinced Barkay, his lecturer at the university, that the rubble needed to be studied.
In 2004, after five years
spent getting a dig licence and raising funds, they
had 75 truckloads of rubble moved to a lot on the slopes of
The first coin they found, Barkay said, was one issued during the Jewish revolt that preceded the Roman destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD, imprinted with the Hebrew words "Freedom of Zion."
The most valuable find so far, Barkay believes, is a clay seal impression discovered last year. Its incomplete Hebrew lettering appears to name Ge'aliyahu, son of Immer. Immer is the name of a family of temple officials mentioned in Jeremiah 20:1.
Another important discovery is the many relics from the early Christian era, which seem to disprove the notion that the site was abandoned in those years as a symbol of God's abandonment of the Jews.
Stephen Pfann of the University of the Holy Land in Jerusalem, best known for his work on the Dead Sea Scrolls, said moving the rubble around has jumbled its contents and diminished its scholarly value.
But even so, "This is
an insight into the life of
Archeology here, however, is rarely just about providing insight into the past.
Barkay's dig is
funded by the City of
When it removed the rubble,
the Waqf was trying to destroy evidence of Jewish history on the
For its part, the Waqf says it wasn't destroying any evidence of Jewish presence - because there isn't any.
"I have seen no evidence of a temple," said the Waqf's director, Adnan Husseini. He had heard "stories," he acknowledged, "but these are an attempt to change the situation here today, and any change would be very dangerous."
Such reactions don't surprise Israeli historian Gershom Gorenberg, whose book "The End of Days" documents the fight over the holy site.
"Dig a centimetre beneath the debate over antiquities," he said, "and you hit the debate over whom the Mount belongs to, and a centimetre beneath that is the war over whom the entire country belongs to."
Among finds uncovered in
rubble removed from the
-The imprint of a seal thought to have belonged to a priestly Jewish family mentioned in the Old Testament's Book of Jeremiah.
-A mother-of-pearl cross left by early Christians of the Byzantine period, with an engraving of the figure of Jesus.
-Coins from the Jewish
revolt that preceded the destruction of the
-Arrowheads shot by Babylonian archers 2,500 years ago, and others launched by Roman siege machinery 500 years later.
-Coins issued by the Muslim ruler who built the golden-capped Dome of the Rock in the seventh century.
-A 19th-century Christian pendant struck by the Jesuit order, bearing the emblem of the holy grail.
-A tiny Roman flask with the images of a helmeted soldier and an elegantly coiffed woman.
-A clay goat's head from the Roman period, likely used to worship the god Pan.
-A two millennia-old jar
handle with the impression of a five-pointed star and the Hebrew inscription
-A sculpted stone from the frieze of a 2,000-year-old Herodian building - perhaps, archeologists suggest, from the temple itself.
11/17/2006 17:44 EST